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Digitization, additive manufacturing, IoT: technical vocational training must be adapted to meet the demands of the future. At the start of the new training year, the German Ministry of Economic Affairs thus plans to enforce the new requirements for dual vocational training in eleven industrial metal and electrical professions ranging from plant mechanics and electronics for industrial engineering to machining mechanics. In addition to key qualifications, such as data security and analysis, the training regulations will also include additional qualifications, such as 3D printing or programming.

However, the adaptation of training occupations cannot compensate for the dramatic shortage of skilled workers in the M+ E industry. For example, a ZVEI study conducted in April 2018 found that the shortage of skilled workers in the STEM fields, which are particularly important for this industry, remains high. There is also a continued shortage of female employees qualified in the STEM fields. According to the employers' association ME Gesamtmetall , the "STEM gap" has now reached record levels: STEM sector companies registered a shortage of 314,800 workers in April 2018.