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On average, cars are useless around 95% of the day, including electric cars. Their batteries could be seen as a temporary power storage used in society as a whole, when the car is parked in front of the house or at the charging station – as "a gigantic swarm battery," as formulated by The Mobility House . With bi-directional charging or Vehicle to Grid (V2G), electric cars will in future be integrated into the electricity grid in order to support the grid as a buffer during peak load periods. Positive side effect for owners or fleet operators: they could cut their electricity bills or reduce their acquisition and maintenance costs for their e-vehicle.

Several electric models are already familiar with bidirectional charging, while comparable V2G solutions are mainly offered by Nuvve . But there are still considerable obstacles: to make use of the times with cheap electricity, an expensive load profile counter is needed, which pays off only for bulk buyers. And at public charging stations, V2G is certainly not welcome – on the contrary, they’d like to clear them as quickly as possible. To this end, Mathias Dalheimer of the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics ITWM in Kaiserslautern has also shown that OCPP and the existing (public) loading infrastructure solutions are anything but solid.